DSL, Modem and Router Technical Terms and Abbreviations etc.

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    UK Sentinel
    • Posts 3804
    • Skipper

    DSL, Modem and Router Technical Terms and Abbreviations etc.

    (UKTechHub Wiki)

    Ok, so I am forever looking for what certain Networking/DSL Technical Abbreviations really mean, Wiki and other sites are very useful, but I have decided to create one of mine own, feel free to suggest others to which I will then also copy to main listing/page and happy to amend listings if you can provide a better (maybe simpler/clearer) alternative description


    AiMesh (ASUS)

    ASUS AiMesh is an innovative feature that connects multiple compatible ASUS routers to create a whole-home WiFi network. It’s a flexible and scalable solution that enables you to mix different ASUS router models to perform a wifi style matrix.


    AiMesh CAP – Central Access Point

    ASUS AiMesh Primary/Main (CAP) Router


    AiMesh RE – Range Extender

    ASUS AiMesh Node/Child (RE) Router


    AURA  – ASUS Aura

    AURA is an ASUS software that controls the colourful LED on your motherboard, graphic card, desktop, etc. The latest version of the ROG AURA software brings the expression “Light up your build” to a whole new level: 1. Device Control Panel. Allows for the simple syncing/desync of Aura capable devices.


    CRC – Cyclic Redundancy Check

    A cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is an error-detecting code commonly used in digital networks and storage devices to detect accidental changes to raw data. Blocks of data entering these systems get a short check value attached, based on the remainder of a polynomial division of their contents. On retrieval, the calculation is repeated and, in the event the check values do not match, corrective action can be taken against data corruption. CRCs can be used for error correction


    DSL – Digital Subscriber Line

    Stands for “Digital Subscriber Line.” DSL is a communications medium used to transfer digital signals over standard telephone lines. Along with cable Internet, DSL is one of the most popular ways ISPs provide broadband Internet access.


    ES – Errored Seconds

    In telecommunications and data communication systems, an errored second is an interval of a second during which any error whatsoever has occurred, regardless of whether that error was a single bit error, or a complete loss of communication for that entire second; the type of error is not important for the purpose of counting errored seconds.

    In communication systems with very low uncorrected bit error rates, such as modern fiber optic transmission systems, or systems with higher low-level error rates that are corrected using large amounts of forward error correction, errored seconds are often a better measure of the effective user-visible error rate than the raw bit error rate.

    For many modern packet-switched communication systems, even a single uncorrected bit error is enough to cause the loss of a data packet by causing its CRC check to fail; whether that packet loss was caused by a single bit error or a hundred-bit-long error burst is irrelevant.


    HEC – Header Error Control

    The Header Error Control field is an 8bit CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Code) within the header of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) cell. It is used to check the validity of the ATM cell control information.


    lcp-echo-adaptive – (Internet Detection – pppd)

    When adaptive LCP echo is enabled, LCP echo requests are only sent if the link is idle, avoiding the common situation where a congested PPP link (e.g. during torrenting) is falsely detected as disconnected because the LCP replies are not received in time.


    Line Branching 

    Line branching is when there are branches in the telephone cabling between the DSL mulitplexer (DSLAM) and the Modem. .

    Line branching can have detrimental effects on the quality of a DSL connection.


    Max. DSLAM throughput

    Highest possible speed of data transmission at the DSL exchange (DSLAM). Usually given in kilobits per second (kbit/s).


    Min. DSLAM throughput

    Lowest possible speed of data transmission at the DSL exchange (DSLAM). Usually given in kilobits per second (kbit/s).


    NAT – Network Address Translation

    Network Address Translation is most commonly used by routers to share a single External IP address (ISP) Protocol by multiple internal devices (home)  – ‘IPv4 and IPv6’



    PPP – Point-to-Point Protocol.

    Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a data link layer (layer 2) communications protocol between two routers directly without any host or any other networking in between. It can provide connection authentication, transmission encryption, and compression.

    PPP is used over many types of physical networks including serial cable, phone line, trunk line, cellular telephone, specialized radio links, and fibre optic links such as SONET. Internet service providers (ISPs) have used PPP for customer dial-up access to the Internet, since IP packets cannot be transmitted over a modem line on their own, without some data link protocol that can identify where the transmitted frame starts and where it ends.

    Two derivatives of PPP, Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) and Point-to-Point Protocol over ATM (PPPoA), are used most commonly by ISPs to establish a digital subscriber line (DSL) Internet service connection with customers


    PPPoE – Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet

    PPPoE is an acronym that stands for Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet. PPPoE is a networking protocol that derived from another, older protocol, called PPP, which stands for Point-to-Point Protocol.

    PPPoE was designed for managing how data is transmitted over Ethernet networks (cable networks), and it allows a single server connection to be divided between multiple clients, using Ethernet. As a result, multiple clients can connect to the same server from the Internet Service Provider and get access to the internet, at the same time, in parallel. To simplify, PPPoE is a modern version of the old dial-up connections, which were popular in the 80s and the 90s.


    REIN – Repetitive Electrical Impulse Noise

    Repetitive Electrical Impulse Noise (REIN) is a term applied to some interference found on problematic DSL internet connections. The interference can be detected as electrical impulses on the physical telephone line on which the internet connection operates. REIN is particularly problematic as it can cause DSL modems to lose synchronisation and drop connection.

    REIN causes interference which in turn causes a DSL modem to mount up CRC errors. This eventually causes DSL synchronisation to drop.

    REIN is often caused by faulty electrical equipment which is in the proximity of the broadband telephone line. Usually the equipment is emitting a radio frequency, which causes electrical impulses along the telephone line


    SES – Severely Errored Seconds

    A severely errored second occurs when the ratio of threshold violations during a one-second interval exceeds a certain predefined threshold, which should be higher than the ES threshold.


    SHINE – Single High Impulse Noise Event

    SHINE (Single High Impulse Noise Event) like REIN but is where this interference is generated as a burst  (once a day or once a week) etc. – when a device is powered on or off, for example. As a result disconnections or line errors may result at the time an electrical device is switched on or off.


    SRA – Seamless Rate Adaptation

    Technology for ADSL2+ (VDSL) that adjusts the speed of data transmission to the transmission quality of the DSL connection without re-synchronizing the DSL connection. This process is switched on or off at the DSL central exchange (DSLAM).


    UPBO – Upstream Power Back Off

    Very high-speed digital subscriber line (VDSL) upstream data transmission in a distributed environment will suffer from relatively strong far-end crosstalk generated by the shorter lines in the binder. This effect can dramatically reduce the upstream capacity on longer lines. To secure the capacity on lines of all lengths, shorter lines will be required to systematically reduce their transmit power. This power reduction is known as (upstream) power backoff (PBO or UPBO)


    WiFi – Wireless Networking Technology

    Wi-Fi is a wireless networking technology that allows computers and other devices to communicate over a wireless signal. It describes network components that are based on one of the 802.11 standards developed by the IEEE and adopted by the Wi-Fi Alliance. Examples of Wi-Fi standards, in chronological order, include:








    Wifi 4 – (802.11n)

    WiFi 4 (802.11n) routers are capable of delivering 300Mbps, though 150Mbps, 450Mbps, 600Mbps, 750Mbps and 900Mbps variations are available.


    Wifi 5 – (802.11ac)

    WiFi 5 (802.11ac) supports speeds up to 7Gbps when used with other WiFi 5 compatible devices. WiFi 5 is also backwards compatible with WiFi 4. This standard also supports MU-MIMO.


    Wifi 6 – (802.11ax)

    IEEE 802.11ax, marketed as Wi-Fi 6 by Wi-Fi Alliance, Wi-Fi CERTIFIED 6™, the industry certification program based on the IEEE 802.11ax standard.

    Wi-Fi 6 is the latest standard from the Wi-Fi Alliance based on the 802.11ax protocol, and provides critical capabilities needed for next-generation enterprise speed requirements.


    Wifi 6E – Wi-Fi 6E extends Wi-Fi CERTIFIED 6 into 6 GHz

    Wi-Fi operation in the 6 GHz frequency band enables Wi-Fi to continue delivering positive experiences for the most bandwidth intensive applications. Wi-Fi 6E certification as part of Wi-Fi CERTIFIED 6 will offer the features and capabilities of Wi-Fi 6, extended to the 6 GHz band. The United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC) made available all 1200 MHz of the 6 GHz band for unlicensed use, and Wi-Fi users will soon benefit from the quick action from Wi-Fi Alliance members to provide worldwide interoperability certification in early 2021.


    WLAN – Wireless Local Area Network

    A Wireless Local Area Network links two or more devices via wireless distribution.


    WPAN – Wireless Personal Area Network

    A Wireless Personal Area Network describes a network used to communicate between intrapersonal devices. When you are sat at your desk using a Bluetooth mouse, headphones, mouse and keyboard, you are utilising a WPAN.


    In a completely sane world, madness is the only freedom (J.G.Ballard).

    UK Sentinel
    • Posts 3804
    • Skipper

    Just added the PPPoE abbreviation

    In a completely sane world, madness is the only freedom (J.G.Ballard).

    UK Sentinel
    • Posts 3804
    • Skipper

    Added Min and Max. DSLAM throughput


    In a completely sane world, madness is the only freedom (J.G.Ballard).

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